The protocol offered countries several opportunities to achieve their objectives. One approach was to use natural processes called “sinks” that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Planting trees that absorb carbon dioxide from the air would be an example. Another approach was the international programme called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged developed countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less developed countries, where there were often significant opportunities to reduce emissions. Under the CDM, the investing country could claim an effective reduction in emissions as a credit to meet its obligations under the Protocol. One example would be an investment in a clean-burning natural gas plant to replace a planned coal-fired power plant. A third approach was emissions trading, which allowed participating countries to buy and sell emission allowances, thus giving economic value to greenhouse gas emissions. European countries have created an emissions trading market as a mechanism to meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Countries that have not met their emission targets should offset the difference between their targeted and actual emissions, plus a penalty of 30% in the next commitment period from 2012 onwards; They would also be prevented from participating in emissions trading until they are found to be in compliance with the Protocol. Emission targets for post-2012 commitment periods should be set in future protocols. Andorra, Palestine, South Sudan, United States and after their withdrawal on September 15. December 2012 Canada is the only Party to the UNFCCC that is not a Party to the Protocol.
In addition, the Protocol is not applied to observers of the Holy See of the UNFCCC. Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands has approved the Protocol for the whole Kingdom, it has not deposited an instrument of ratification for Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten or the Caribbean Netherlands.  The natural, technical and social sciences can provide information on decisions related to this goal, including the possible magnitude and pace of future climate change.  However, the IPCC has also concluded that deciding what constitutes “dangerous” interference requires value judgments that will vary from region to region of the world.  Factors that could influence this decision include the local consequences of the effects of climate change, the ability of a given region to adapt to climate change (adaptability), and the ability of a region to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation capacity).  Almost all scientists who study the atmosphere today believe that global warming is primarily the result of human action. Logically, what people have caused by their behavior should be able to be corrected by people who change their behavior. It is frustrating for many that coherent action to address the man-made global climate crisis is still pending. As Milton Friedman said, economic and political freedom can be achieved by capitalism; Nevertheless, it is never guaranteed that we will have the equality of wealth of those who are at the top of the “food chain” of this capitalist world. All these changes come to make citizen leaders choose to improve their lifestyles.
In the case of the Kyoto Protocol, regulations must be adopted to reduce the production of environmental pollutants. In addition, attempts are being made to endanger the freedoms of private and public citizens. On the one hand, it imposes more important regulations on companies and reduces their profits, as they have to comply with these regulations with often more expensive production alternatives. On the other hand, it seeks to reduce the emissions that cause the rapid environmental change called climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has produced a series of projections of what the future increase in global average temperature might look like.  IPCC projections are “baseline projections”, i.e. they assume that no effort will be made in the future to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ipcc projections cover the period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century.
  The “probable” range (estimated correct based on IPCC expert opinion with a probability of more than 66%)) is a projected increase in global average temperature in the 21st century between 1.1 and 6.4 °C. The Protocol divides countries into two groups: Annex I includes developed and non-Annex I countries refer to developing countries. The Protocol sets emission limits only for Annex I countries. Non-Annex I States have participated by investing in projects to reduce emissions in their countries. The Protocol left open several issues that would later be decided by the Sixth COP6 Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated stricter implementation) and the United States. Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which commits states parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions based on the scientific consensus that (Part I) global warming is taking place and (Part Two) it is extremely likely that man-made CO2 emissions have mainly caused them. .